The questions associated with the topic of how to match ecological and phylogenetic data are ripe, but “phylogenetic correction” essentially adjusts relationships by weighting closely related species less than distantly related species. The fundamental differences of opinion pin whether closely related species hold similar traits because of phylogenetic constraint or ecological constraint. Closely related species might have similar traits because there has been little time for radiation, or because they are under similar ecological selection pressure. Distantly related species might have different traits because initial trait differences have long been conserved due to fundamental difficulties associated with character displacement or because they have been under the same ecological pressures for a long time.
The issues of how to identify adaptations or evolutionarily beneficial relationships cannot be covered here, but these fundamental issues have never been resolved, near as I can tell. The current détente that seems to exist is to examine ahistorical and “phylogenetically corrected” relationships among traits and hope that the patterns are the same. When setting to test relationships among species, choose congeneric species pairs from distantly related genera and hope the patterns work out consistently.
It’s currently an uneasy impasse. Both sides recognize that correlation does not necessarily imply causation. But outside of hoping that the evolutionary and ecological patterns parallel, there is still no resolution to the question of how to compare the traits of species.